Elm (Ulmus spp.)

General Information

Family: Elm family (Ulmaceae)
Flowering period in Central Europe: Pre-spring to early spring
Months: 3–4

Allergy potential
Low allergenicity.

Elm pollen may cause cross-reactions for individuals sensitized to pollen of nettle family members due to close familial relatedness.

Botanical Information

Formerly widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, southernmost occurrences in Malaysia, populations greatly reduced due to Dutch elm disease (fungal infestation). Habitats — From plains to mountainous areas.

Habit — Tree or shrub. Foliage — Evergreen or summer-green, leaves inversely egg-shaped, leaf margin serrated, leaf base asymmetric. Reproduction — Dioecious, inflorescences in dense clusters, seeds flat round-winged nuts.

Common species in Europe

Wych elm or scots elm (Ulmus glabra).
Habit — Tree. Foliage — Summer-green. Distribution — From middle to high montane elevations, also in ravine forests (shade-tolerant species), cultivated as an ornamental and park tree. Flowering period in Central Europe — March to April.

European White Elm (Ulmus laevis).
Habit — Tree. Foliage — Summer-green. Habitats — Floodplain forests to middle montane elevations. Flowering period in Central Europe — End of March to mid-April.